Return to the Poza Consulting Service Home Page

Voicegram Identification Evidence

Gruber, J. S. and Poza, F.
1995: 54 Am Jur Trials, Lawyers Cooperative Publishing.


ARTICLE OUTLINE


I. PREFATORY COMMENTS (1-14)
A. Introduction (1-3)
B. Overview of Ongoing Controversy Over Voicegram Evidence (4-8)
C. Terminology (9-14)


II. SOUND, HUMAN SPEECH, AND VOICE IDENTIFICATION (15-37)

A. Sound and Sound Waves (15-19)
B. Voice Characteristics Relating to Identification of Human Speech (20-25)
C. Types of Voice Identification (26-33)
D. Apparatus and Production of Voicegrams (34-37)


Ill. HISTORY OF SOUND SPECTROGRAM VOICE IDENTIFICATION (39-53)

A. In general (38. 39)
B. Early Period: Development and Initial Legal Application; 1941-1971 (40-43)
C. Middle Period: Tosi Study and Fairly Wide Acceptance; 1971-79 (44-48)
D. Current Period: NAS Report and Mixed Legal Acceptance; 1979--Present (49-53)


IV. VOICEGRAM METHODOLOGY AND PROTOCOLS (54-71)

A. Introduction (54-56)
B. IAI Protocol and Methodology (57-60)
C. Suggested Improvements to Protocols and Methodology (61-71)
1. In General (61,64)
2. Voice Lineups (65-68)
3. Elimination Versus Identification Protocols (69-71)


V. SCIENTIFIC ISSUES, CRITICISMS AND CONTROVERSIES (72-98)

A. Introduction (72-78)
1. Lack of Theoretical and Experimental Basis (72-75)
2. Factors limiting application of techniqt4e (76-78)

B. Tosi, et al., Extension of Experimental Results (79-87)
1. Tosi "Extrapolation" (79-81)
2. Examination of Tosi's Assumptions (82-87)

C. Tutorial on Subjective Decision Making and Signal Detection Theory in Context of Voicegram Evidence (88-98)


VI. ADMISSIBILITY AND OTHER LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS (99-121)

A. Introduction (99-102)
B. Standards for Admissibility of Voicegrams as Scientific Evidence (103-106)
C. Relevance, Materiality, and Competence (107-109)
D. Laying Foundation for Voicegram Evidence (112, 113)
F. Role of the Trial Court (114-116)
G. Issues Related to Exemplars (117-119)
H. Historical Trends (120. 121)


VII. VOICEGRAM EXPERTS AND ASSOCIATIONS (122-132)

A. Associations and Professional Requirements (122-127)
B. Retaining and Evaluating Examiners (128-132)


VIII. APPENDIX (��133)

Return to the Poza Consulting Service Home Page